Manipulating Electron Chains on the Surface of Liquid Helium
David Rees1,2*, Niyaz Beysengulov2,3, Dmitrii Tayurskii3, Kimitoshi Kono2
1Institute of Physics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan
2Low Temperature Physics Laboratory, RIKEN, Saitama, Japan
3Institute of Physics, Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russian Federation
* presenting author:David Rees,
The control and measurement of single electrons in nanostructured devices offers great possibilities for quantum computation or simulation. However, solid-state systems suffer from decoherence due to the interaction of electrons with their environment. Here we demonstrate the exquisite control of a quasi-1D system of electrons `floating' in vacuum above a liquid helium substrate confined in a microfabricated channel. By electrostatically varying the particle density and lateral confinement, we control the transition from the electron liquid (EL) to Wigner crystal (WC) phase, and the number of electron rows in the quasi-1D lattice, from many tens down to a single chain. We thus determine a phase diagram for the system, in which the boundary between the EL and WC phases exhibits a series of fringes that mark the commensurate states of the quasi-1D electron lattice with the confinement geometry. The precise manipulation of a spatially-ordered chain of electrons, as demonstrated here, offers exciting new possibilities for quantum information processing experiments that utilise the electron Rydberg or spin states.

Keywords: Electrons on Helium, Wigner crystal, Quasi-one-dimensional electron systems